Esterification of free fatty acids using water-tolerable Amberlyst as a of heterogeneous acid catalysts, Amberlyst 15 and Amberlyst BD The grant supports Rohm and Haas’s development of a newly commercial polymeric catalyst technology, AMBERLYST™ BD20 specialty. When the FFA contents of oils were and wt%, the activity of Amberlyst 15 gradually decreased with recycling, whereas the activity of Amberlyst BD

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The calculated molar ratio of methanol to free fatty acids was 9. The residence time of the acid though the catalyst bed should be approximately minutes. Conversion of hemicellulose to furfural and levulinic acid using biphasic reactors with alkylphenol solvents.

AMBERLYST™ BD20 – KDY Holdings

Esterification reactions can also be aided with excess alcohol and catalyst addition, although economic factors, small incremental improvements, and additional operational complexity usually limit their effectiveness.

The second reaction mixture 10 enters unit which may be a decanter, centrifuge, flash evaporator, flash qmberlyst, vacuum distillation column or other separation unit. In one embodiment, the second reaction mixture 10 is washed with water before entering a decanter The reaction temperature may be maintained by electric heat, steam, thermal fluid or other such industrial means practiced by one skilled in the art. In one embodiment the feedstock containing carboxylic acid is pretreated to remove excess water and impurities.

Continuous production of biodiesel from high acid value oils in microstructured reactor by acid-catalyzed reactions. The homogenous catalyst may be contained in either or both phases.

In general about 2. It may be a continuously-stirred tank, plug-flow, tubular-flow, mixed-flow, fixed bed, fluidized bed, batch, semi-batch, recirculating, or other reactor type. In one embodiment, the reaction time in unit is around minutes, and in another embodiment the reaction time is around minutes.


Heterogeneous catalysis is employed on a global commercial scale in the petroleum chemicals and fuels industries, for example, in which extreme operating conditions are used. One or more guard beds may be employed in series or parallel. In addition to the direct activity of the homogeneous catalyst, it is believed that a portion of the homogeneous catalyst prevents the contaminants from binding to the heterogeneous catalyst and thereby prevents fouling or deactivation of the heterogeneous catalyst.

In one embodiment the carboxylic acids contained in the feedstock are free fatty acids. Homogenous catalysis provides bc20 selectivity and activity. In one embodiment the first reaction mixture 3 is amberlst with water before entering a decanter The method of claim 1wherein said amherlyst is methanol or ethanol. This application is based upon U. The method of amberlysy 1wherein the feedstock, alcohol, and homogeneous catalyst flow upward through said reactor.

The operating conditions and provisions of the first reactor are as previously described. The regeneration may be performed in multiple steps with different acid concentrations and residence times in each step.

Esterification of free fatty acids using water-tolerable Amberlyst as a heterogeneous catalyst.

The reactor may be oriented either horizontally or vertically. In another embodiment the Amgerlyst content is consistently below 0. The methods of the invention can accommodate a wide range of feedstocks.

The method of claim 13wherein the reactor is a continuous flow reactor. FFA molar ratio 8.

In one embodiment, the final reaction mixture 35or 10 is separated into an alcohol and water phase and an oil phase amberlysf referred to herein as the dry reaction mixture. The method of claim 1wherein amberlyzt reactor is a fixed bed reactor. In another embodiment method is conducted in parallel with method It is technically feasible to regenerate deactivated ion exchange catalyst with strong acids hydrochloric, sulfuric, and possibly methane sulfonic.


The method of xmberlyst 1wherein said homogenous catalyst prolongs the activity of said heterogeneous catalyst. One method to reduce the FFA level in fats and oils is to remove them by distillation. The reactor should be sized to provide sufficient residence time for the carboxylic acid contained in the feedstock 1 to be converted sufficiently to esters.


The use of acids, niobium oxide, and zeolite catalysts for esterification reactions. In one embodiment, unit may have operating conditions and provisions as previously described for unit when charged with heterogeneous catalyst; whereas unit may have operating conditions and provisions as described for unit bc20 not containing heterogeneous catalyst.

US8957242B2 – Dual catalyst esterification – Google Patents

In another embodiment, a portion of alcohol, water, and homogenous catalyst 6 are removed from the second reaction mixture 5 contained in unit by decantation or centrifugation, leaving a principally dry reaction mixture 7. Reaction mixture samples were water washed and centrifuged for 5 minutes in 10 mL centrifuge tubes to remove water and methanol to obtain the oil phase. In one embodiment, the homogenous catalyst described in the invention is methanesulfonic acid MSA.

In another embodiment method is repeated in series with method Depending on the unit operation desired, unit may operate at temperatures and pressures above or below atmospheric conditions. Continuous method for the heterogenically catalyzed esterification of fatty acids. Sulfuric acid, p-toluene sulfonic acid, and other strong acid catalysts have been used for esterification, but process equipment corrosion, product contamination, and catalyst recovery, neutralization, disposal, health and safety concerns and continuous cost issues remain—especially for conversion of renewable feedstocks with high FFA content into biofuels.

These steps can occur in amberoyst vessels in multiple stages according to one skilled in the art.